Process of reproducing print and images


Comparison of printing methods
Printing process Transfer method Ink thickness on substrate Notes Cost-effective run length
Offset printing rollers 0.5–1.5 µm high print quality >5,000 (A3 trim size, sheet-fed)[34 ] >30,000 (A3 trim size, web-fed)34
Rotogravure rollers 0.8–8 µm thick ink layers possible, excellent image reproduction, edges of letters and lines are jagged[35] >500,000[35]
Flexography rollers 0.8–2.5 µm high quality (now HD)
Letterpress printing platen 0.5–1.5 µm slow drying
Screen-printing pressing ink through holes in screen <12 µm versatile method, low quality
Electrophotography electrostatics 5–10 µm thick ink
Liquid Electrophotography image formation by Electrostatics and transfer while fixing High PQ, excellent image reproduction, wide range of media, very thin image
Inkjet printer thermal <0.5 µm special paper required to reduce bleeding <350 (A3 trim size)
Inkjet printer piezoelectric <0.5 µm special paper required to reduce bleeding <350 (A3 trim size)
Inkjet printer continuous <0.5 µm special paper required to reduce bleeding <350 (A3 trim size)
Transfer-print thermal transfer film or water release decal mass-production method of applying an image to a curved or uneven surface
Letterpress printing is a technique of relief printing. A worker composes and locks movable type into the bed of a press, inks it, and presses paper against it to transfer the ink from the type which creates an impression on the paper.
Offset printing is a widely used printing technique. Offset printing is where the inked image is transferred (or "offset") from a plate to a rubber blanket. An offset transfer moves the image to the printing surface. When used in combination with the lithographic process, a process based on the repulsion of oil and water; the offset technique employs a flat (planographic) image carrier. So, the image to be printed obtains ink from ink rollers, while the non-printing area attracts a film of water, keeping the non-printing areas ink-free.
Gravure printing is an intaglio printing technique, where the image being printed is made up of small depressions in the surface of the printing plate. The cells are filled with ink, and the excess is scraped off the surface with a doctor blade. Then a rubber-covered roller presses paper onto the surface of the plate and into contact with the ink in the cells. The printing cylinders are usually made from copper plated steel, which is subsequently chromed, and may be produced by diamond engraving; etching, or laser ablation.
Flexography is a type of relief printing.The relief plates are typically made from photopolymers. The process is used for flexible packaging, labels, newspapers.In this market it competes with gravure printing by holding 80% of the market in USA, 50% in Europe but only 20% in Asia
Inkjet, used typically to print a small number of books or packaging, and also to print a variety of materials: from high quality papers simulating offset printing, to floor tiles. Inkjet is also used to apply mailing addresses to direct mail pieces
Laser printing (toner printing) mainly used in offices and for transactional printing (bills, bank documents). Laser printing is commonly used by direct mail companies to create variable data letters or coupons.
Pad printing, popular for its ability to print on complex three-dimensional surfaces
Relief print, mainly used for catalogues
Screen-printing for a variety of applications ranging from T-shirts to floor tiles, and on uneven surfaces
Intaglio, used mainly for high-value documents such as currencies







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